Research Week 2022

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Recent Submissions

  • Publication
    Morphine potentiates glucocorticoid receptor translocation in neuronal cells
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Das, Subas; Roy, Sabita
    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a central role in regulating signaling by glucocorticoid receptor which is expressed in almost all cells. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin both of which are derived through processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) pro-hormone are secreted from anterior pituitary under stressed conditions. ACTH released into circulation regulates the release of glucocorticoids from adrenal gland. Glucocorticoids cause profound suppression of functional activity of HPA axis as negative feedback control. The endogenous opioids acting primarily at mu opioid receptor inhibit activity of HPA axis and thus release ACTH and β-endorphin from anterior pituitary. Furthermore, there are enough reports to support that glucocorticoids regulate mu opioid receptor expression through GRE binding specially in mouse where it has already been shown that promoter region of mouse mu opioid receptor not delta or kappa opioid receptor contains a glucocorticoid-response element (GRE). The glucocorticoid receptor is a member of steroid-hormone receptor family of proteins. It binds to glucocorticoids with high affinity. In inactive state, the GR complexes with chaperones like heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70) and 90 (Hsp90) and immunophilins and their co-chaperones making GR more accessible to ligand binding. After ligand binding the GR is activated and chaperones and co-chaperones are reshuffled with GR to be translocated to nucleus where the GR homodimerize and binds to GRE in promoter region. The resulting complex recruits either co-activator or co-repressor proteins that modify the structure of chromatin thereby facilitating or inhibiting assembly of the basal transcription machinery and the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II.
  • Publication
    Accuracy of the lever sign test in a diagnostic exam of an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury: a critically appraised topic
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Daniels, Michael; Heald, Lorah; Warren, Aric
    Context: The lever sign has been developed and researched, within the last ten years, as an alternative physical examination of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The simplicity and practicality of the test has increased its presence within ACL clinical assessment literature. Multiple studies investigating the lever sign have shown significant sensitivity in diagnosing ACL tears. However, the patient population in the majority of these studies are those reporting with chronic knee injuries. Therefore, there is limited research showing the effectiveness of the lever sign in acute evaluations. This critically appraised topic explores the potential for the lever sign to be significantly effective in diagnosing acute ACL tears within the general population.
  • Publication
    Archaea in mammalian gut microbiomes
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Dange, Shilpa; Torres, Alejandro; Assefa, Senait; Rivera, Steven; Richardson, Thomas; Perez, Brenda; Vazquez-Sanroman, Dolores; Koehler, Gerwald
    Background: Archaea are the most enigmatic domain of the three domains of life. Archaea are unique in that they share some characteristics with bacteria and others with eukaryotes while they are also distinct from these two domains. Mostarchaea are extremophiles that are found in highly acidic, high salt, or high- temperature environments. However, recent microbiome research has revealed that these prokaryotes are also a part of the gut microbiota, albeit their functional roles in gut health or disease are unclear. Archaea could be keystone species in the gut that engage in important syntrophic relationships with other gut microbes. The recent proposal of archaeal strains as a new class of probiotics (archaebiotics) could be of interest for improving gut pathophysiology and overall human health. The main aim of this study is to mine extant microbiome data sets in our laboratory for the presence of archaeal sequences.
  • Publication
    Sex differences in protein excretion in mice consuming high protein diet
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Cueli, Nicole; Pena, Andriana; Dutcher, Avery; Fan, Liming; Rouch, Al
    Background: Normally, the renal excretion of protein (or proteinuria) is absent or very small. Ingesting high-protein diets can elevate proteinuria and in the long term, increase the work on the kidney by increasing glomerular filtration and higher energy requirement to handle the protein. Sex differences in renal function are well known and thus, differences in proteinuria may exist. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences exist in proteinuria in mice consuming high protein diet and investigate the potential roles of the sex steroids 17beta-estrogen (E2) and testosterone.
  • Publication
    Asthma call back survey results: a need for increase of asthma actions plans and allowance to carry medication
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Wilkins, Rachel; Schiffmacher, Sadie; Gatewood, Ashton; Nicks, Savannah; Greiner, Benjamin; Hartwell, Micah
    Purpose of Research: Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting children in the United States. Goals for asthma management include symptom control, ability to maintain a normal activity level, and minimizing adverse events.
  • Publication
    Study of time dependent degradation of mRNA encoding the SPRR3 and S100A9 gene markers in saliva stains
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Woodson, Kayla; Fu, Jun; Allen, Robert
    When a body fluid stain is found at a crime scene, it may be beneficial to use the RNA found within to approximate the age of the stain. This is important in cases where a person of interest has been known to be in a location several times before any crime occurred. RNA has proven to be useful in the field of forensic investigation; however, it has been shown to be less stable than DNA. The analysis of mRNA includes common methods like reverse transcription PCR, or RT-PCR. Research has previously been conducted in this laboratory has shown the relationship between the age of a blood stain and semen stain and the amount of RNA degradation. In this experiment, buccal swabs were collected and placed in a box to dry in a room temperature environment. Swabs were left to dry for time intervals of up to one month, after which mRNA was extracted and reverse transcribed to cDNA. Transcripts for the saliva specific marker SPRR3, along with S100A9, typically expressed in the esophagus, were analyzed through real time qPCR analysis. Results so far show that as the time between sample acquisition and analysis increases, Ct values increase for the marker SPRR3, which shows the transcripts are undergoing degradation. Ct values for the S100A9 marker appears to stay relatively constant. These results can be helpful in real world case work where a saliva sample may have been left out accidentally, but can still be used to produce mRNA. By studying the effects of time on mRNA degradation, the age of a stain can be approximated.
  • Publication
    Clinical trial discontinuation and non-publication for the pharmacologic treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among military veterans
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Weygandt, Jonas; Moody, Morgan; Sajjadi, Nicholas B.; Greiner, Benjamin; Ford, Alicia; Hartwell, Micah
    Background: Failures by researchers and clinicians to understand, confront, and overcome barriers in veteran-health research may result in the waste of finite resources. Research waste includes clinical trial discontinuation and non-publication which have been shown to be substantial among several fields of medicine. It is the ethical responsibility of researchers, as scientists, to contribute their findings to the existing literature as supported by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the National Institute for Health Research and the Declaration of Helsinki regarding human subjects. Given the rates of discontinuation and non-publication of clinical trials among other fields of medicine and the lack of evidence demonstrating publication rates of clinical trials (CTs) among veterans, our primary objective was to determine rates of discontinuation and non-publication among post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) focused CTs with pharmaceutical interventions specific to the veteran population.
  • Publication
    Breastfeeding status and its influence on Native American women’s food preferences
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Whitaker, Liza-Ann; Davis, Hope; Jones, Alexis B.
    Introduction: To evaluate if breastfeeding alters Native American women’s food preferences, recently postpartum women were offered food interest surveys during their 6-week postpartum checkup at W. W. Hastings Indian Hospital in Tahlequah, OK (a Native American serving health facility owned by the Cherokee Nation of OK).
  • Publication
    Trauma across generations: a novel look at adverse childhood experiences using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Terry, Rachel; Schiffmacher, Sadie; Conway, Lauren; Croff, Julie M.; Hartwell, Micah
    Introduction: The adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) study was one of the first to demonstrate the robust, life-long effects of family dysfunction, child maltreatment, and neglect during childhood. The initial study of well-educated, middle-class adults indicated that early life traumatic events are common and frequently co-occur with more than 66% reporting having at least 1 ACE and over 20% with 3 or more. Subsequent studies representative of the general population have identified higher rates of 3 or more ACEs. There is a dose-response relationship with the ACEs accumulated and a range of adverse health outcomes including, but not limited to, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, depression, substance misuse, and suicide. The effects of ACEs appear to drive lasting behavioral and biological adaptations that may increase the risk for ACEs in future generations.
  • Publication
    COVID 19 and its effects on pediatric orthopaedic clinical trials
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Webb, Jason; Emmert, Ryan E.; Reddy, Arjun K.; Sajjadi, Nicholas B.; Checketts, Jake X.; Boose, Marshall; Schwartz, Mark S.; Hartwell, Micah
    Background: Clinical trials for the treatment of pediatric orthopaedics are critical to enhance the quality of life of these children. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA updated guidance on conducting clinical trials to prioritize patient safety; however the degree to which the pandemic disrupted pediatric orthopaedic-related clinical trials is unknown. Thus, our objective is to quantify the number of these trials disrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Publication
    Adverse childhood experiences and subjective cognitive decline: An analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Terry, Rachel; Schiffmacher, Sadie; Dutcher, Avery; Baxter, Michael A.; Croff, Julie M.; Hartwell, Micah
    Background: Cognitive functioning plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy, active, and independent lifestyle. A 2017 study found the total net cost of care for an individual with dementia was 175% more than a person without dementia 1 . With an aging population and increasing rates of dementia in the U.S., improved etiology of cognitive decline is pertinent to establishing preventative measures, and therefore slowing increasing rates. The aim of this study was to determine the association between domains of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in a representative sample of the US adult population.
  • Publication
    Proteomics study reveals a gender-based ribosomal inflammatory biomarker in Hepatitis C virus induced cirrhosis
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Swope, Logan; Das, Subhas; Pathak, Sachi; Kaul, Anil; Kaul, Rashmi
    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Further, HCC is a leading cause of liver-related death world-wide linked to liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. Clinical evidence suggests that pre-menopausal women, with elevated levels of circulating estrogen, clear HCV infection faster than males, and show low incidence of HCC. Our studies have shown gender-based differential estrogen receptor expression in the normal liver, which could contribute to protection in pre-menopausal women against chronic liver diseases including HCC. There is a gap in the current knowledge of biomarkers that could be used for early detection of HCV-related cirrhosis and HCC development. Further, biomarkers that account for gender differences in HCV-related pathogenesis have not yet been identified.
  • Publication
    Cultural pathway to osteopathic medical school: The Native American pre-admissions workshop
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Cosby, Caitlin; Gatewood, Ashton; Douglas, Alex; West, Mariah; Thompson, S. Mackenzee; Postoak, Brandon; Evans, Sheridan; Bray, Natasha; Smith, Kent
    Background: Native Americans (NAs) experience significant health disparities compared to the general US population. Medical education has a key role to play in addressing these inequities; however, it is currently falling short. Providers lack sufficient knowledge of NA heritage, cultures, perspectives, and social determinants of health. Under-representation begins in the medical education pathway, with only 0.3% of residents and merely 0.15% of faculty serving the 2.9% of identifying NAs. Because NA health professionals are more likely to serve the NA community, training more NAs has the potential to address current workforce challenges in Indian Country. However, there is a void in literature specific to the recruitment, training, and development of NA providers in the US workforce. This likely contributes to the limited success of US medical schools to train NA physicians. Therefore, our primary objective is to increase awareness of osteopathic medicine, including introduction of osteopathic practice and philosophy, among NAs interested in pursuing a career in medicine. Our secondary objective is to provide prospective NA applicants exposure to the knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes necessary for successful matriculation to osteopathic medical school.
  • Publication
    Effectiveness of whole-body vibration on improving balance in athletes with chronic ankle instability
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Smith, Caitlyn; Ogino, Hana; O’Brien, Matthew
    Context: Chronic ankle instability is a condition that can occur after multiple ankle injuries, or one severe ankle injury, and can affect balance, proprioception and walking mechanics. Improving balance can be helpful in rehabilitating those with chronic ankle instability. Whole body vibration treatment (WBV), vibration delivered at a specific amplitude and frequency through a platform that the patient is standing on, has been used to help increase neuromuscular control and proprioception in lower extremity injury rehabilitation but very little is known about WBV’s effect on balance. Balance in athletes with CAI has been seen to improve with balance training but there is little research on the effects of using WBV in this population.
  • Publication
    Examining trends in the public’s awareness of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the United States using infodemiology metrics
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Schultz, Adam; Burrows, Blake; Sajjadi, Nicholas B.; Vassar, Matt; Hartwell, Micah
    Background: Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI) is a disorder caused by multiple etiologies leading to decreased pancreatic function. EPI presents with nonspecific symptoms and is largely unknown by the public, making EPI a difficult diagnosis. Awareness campaigns for EPI have been supported by AbbVie, a pharmaceutical company that manufactures the only available treatment for EPI (Creon), but it is unknown whether the campaigns have led to increased EPI awareness.
  • Publication
    Synthetic cannabinoid, WIN 55212-2, leads to changes of proBDNF/BDNF ratio levels in the periaqueductal gray and blood concentrations in the adolescent rat
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Santos, Jordan; Torres, Alejandro; Vazquez-Sanroman, Dolores
    Background: The hemp plant Cannabis sativa—marijuana and hashish are among the most commonly used illicit substances in adolescents and young adults. The synthetic CB1 agonist WIN 55212-2 (WIN) administration to rats and mice during adolescence leads to long-lasting deficits. Endocannabinoids and neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), are potent neuromodulators that play critical roles in many behavioral and physiological processes. Disruption of either BDNF or endocannabinoid signaling is associated with an overlapping set of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. The key to understanding the relationship between stress/anxiety and the endocannabinoid system may not lie in the anxiolytic or anxiogenic properties of various CB1 receptor ligands but in the ability of the endocannabinoid system to modulate the reactivity of affective or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) processes. Hence, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain structure that regulates anxiety, is key to understanding the relationship between stress/anxiety and the endocannabinoid system. Also, neurons within the PAG are a release-site for BDNF and are involved in analgesic agents, including opioids. This neurotrophin plays a role in synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection.
  • Publication
    Person-centered language and ADHD research: a cross-sectional examination of stigmatizing language within medical literature
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Robling, Kristyn; Cosby, Caitlin; Parent, Gunner; Gajjar, Swapnil; Chesher, Tessa; Baxter, Michael; Hartwell, Micah
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is frequently found in children. It often goes untreated due to the negative stigma that surrounds the disorder. This stigma is often perpetrated by those in the educational and scientific community. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional examination to measure the adherence to patient-centered language (PCL) among ADHD-related journal publications. We included a systematic search of PubMed ADHD-related articles (which included MEDLINE) that were published between January 2014 and March 2021. All journals that included at least 20 ADHD-related searches, human research, and were in the English language were included, totaling 5308 articles from 88 journals. These articles were randomized, and the first 500 were selected and screened for inclusion of pre-specified, non-PCL terminology. After exclusion, 311 articles remained. Of these articles, 131 (42.12%) adhered to PCL guidelines. The remaining articles contained stigmatizing language, including phrases such as “problem(s) with [the/a] child or problem child” and “suffers from,” most frequently— occurring in 47.90% (149/311) and 5.79% (18/311) of articles, respectively. There was a significant association between PCL adherence and first author employment (P = 0.04). We found that over half of the current literature on children with ADHD did not adhere to PCL guidelines. PCL is associated with positive health outcomes; therefore, its implementation is recommended by multiple professional groups. It is necessary for the medical and scientific community to adhere to PCL so that stigma surrounding ADHD can be mitigated and support can be readily available.
  • Publication
    Investigation of the microbial and molecular correlates of Morgellons disease
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Rice, Samantha G.; Wymore, Randy S.
    Morgellons disease is a complex dermopathy that is controversial in the medical community. Unfortunately, there is not enough evidence to the etiology or transmission of this disease. Due to the lack of information, the debate surrounding Morgellons is considerable. There are currently no accepted markers for diagnosis, which leads patients to a common differential diagnosis of delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation.1,3 However, with further investigation, potential etiologies can be explored. In this study:
  • Publication
    Gender and geographical representation in the National Institute of Health’s Neuroscience and Behavior Study Section (AA4): a longitudinal analysis
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Rea, Jack; Clark, Payton; Vassar, Matt
    Background: Previous studies support the experience of gender and geographical bias in research scientists that receive funding from the National Institute of Health (NIH) in terms of the application success rate and the amount of money received (Silva et al., 2020; Wahls, Wayne, 2016). Our team analyzed gender and geographical differences in the NIH's Neuroscience and Behavior (AA4) study section members to investigate these disparities further.
  • Publication
    Analysis of changing statistical significance from .05 to .005 in foot and ankle randomized controlled trials
    (Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, 2022-02-18) Reddy, Arjun K.; Scott, Jared T.; Stephens, B. Joshua; Patel, Ashini; Checketts, Jake X.; Stotler, Wesley; Hawkins, Brian; Vassar, Matt
    Background: Misinterpretation of p-values in RCTs is extremely problematic since they are the core basis for high levels of recommendation in clinical practice guidelines, especially Orthopaedics. Benjamin et al. proposed a universal protocol change, moving statistical significance from a p-value of .05 to .005 to combat the misinterpretation that is happening in medical literature. In this study, we are looking to evaluate the effect of the protocol suggested by Benjamin et al. on foot and ankle-related RCTs in the top 3 Foot and Ankle-related journals.