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Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate. Part I: Simulation

Xu, Guan
Piao, Daqing
Musgrove, Cameron H.
Bunting, Charles F.
Dehghani, Hamid
We investigate the feasibility of trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator that is to be integrated with a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. Integration with TRUS ensures accurate endo-rectal positioning of the NIR applicator and the utility of using TRUS spatial prior information to guide NIR image reconstruction. The prostate NIR image reconstruction is challenging even with the use of spatial prior owing to the anatomic complexity of the imaging domain. A hierarchical reconstruction algorithm is developed that implements cascaded initial-guesses for nested domains. This hierarchical image reconstruction method is then applied to evaluating a number of NIR applicator designs for integration with a sagittal TRUS transducer. A NIR applicator configuration feasible for instrumentation development is proposed that contains one linear array of optodes on each lateral side of the sagittal TRUS transducer. The performance of this NIR applicator is characterized for the recovery of single tumor mimicking lesion as well as dual targets in the prostate. The results suggest a strong feasibility of transrectal prostate imaging by use of the endo-rectal NIR/US probe.