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Breeding Ecology and Management of Least Terns, Snowy Plovers, and American Avocets

Koenen, Marcus Theodor
Chapters in this thesis are written in manuscript formats suitable for submission to selected scientific journals. Each manuscript is complete without supporting materials. Chapter I follows the format of the Journal of Wildlife Management; Chapter II the format of the Journal of Field Ornithology; Chapter III the Wilson Bulletin; and Chapter IV the Condor. Russell Utych presented findings from the first 2 years of this project in 2 Annual Reports (1991 and 1992) and a M. S. thesis (1993). These reports cover results of: 1) an assessment of compatibility of the annual harvest of selenite crystals near Clay Creek in Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge with breeding activities of least terns and snowy plovers, 2) an assessment of least tern and snowy plover use of the selenite crystal dig site, and 3) a study determining the efficacy of electrified fencing to decrease predation of least tern and snowy plover nests. One additional Annual Report (1993) and 1 Final Report (1995) were completed as part of this project. The Annual Reports presented preliminary results of this study, and the Final Report presented the same data as Chapter I. All reports were submitted to Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge and are available to interested individuals from the Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078